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  Region: Region Capital: Other Province Capitals: Other Important Cities:
5. Veneto Venice   Verona, Padua, Vicenza, Treviso, Rovigo, Belluno, Mestre

ונציה - מידע כללי || היהודים בונציה || History of the Jewish Ghetto in Venice || Synagogues || Jewish Community Contact Info || Kosher Establishments || Jewish Cemetery || Hotels|| 
Venice - Jewish History

|| טרויזו - כללי || טרויזו - יהודים || Venice and the Jews - The Treviso Connection ||
Venice Acquires Treviso || Treviso Helpful links ||

TREVISO - טרויזו - טרויסוtrevisoklali

טרויזו, עיר בצפון מזרח איטליה. פרנסתה על החקלאות האינטנסיבית שבסביבתה ועל תעשייה קלה. העיר העתיקה של טרויזו שמרה על אופייה מימי הביניים. רחובותיה צרים ועקלקלים. כנסייתה המרכזית נבנתה במאות ה 11 - 12. נשתמרו בה כמה ארמונות ובתי עשירים מהמאות ה 13 - 16. בעיר שמורות כמה תמונות של ציירים מפורסמים, ובכללם טיציאנו. טרויזו כבר היתה קיימת בתקופה הרומית ונקראה בשם טארויזיום. ב 776 היתה לבירתה של נסיכות ספר בממלכתו של קארולוס הגדול. ב 1339 נפלה בידי ונציה, ויחד עימה ב 1797 היתה בידי אוסטריה. מ 1866 היא בתחום איטליה. במלחמת העולם השנייה ניזוקה הרבה מהפצצות מהאויר

טרויזו, יהודים

יהודי טרויזו נזכרים לראשונה ב 905. בנקים יהודיים הוקמו בעיר בסוף המאה ה 13. בסוף המאה ה 15 נזכרים בה בית כנסת חדש, ישיבה ומקווה, ונתפרסמה שיטת אחזקת העניים שנהגה בה. ב 1496 הוכרחו יהודי טרויזו לוותר על העיסוק בריבית, כדי למנוע את גירושם. עם כיבוש טרויזו על ידי צבאות ברית קמברה, בשנת 1509 , פרצו מהומות, ורוב בתי היהודים נהרסו. באותה שנה גורשו היהודים מטרויזו. הצו אף נחקק על עמודי שיש בכיכר העיר. במחצית השנייה של המאה ה 19 שוב נוסדה בטרויזו קהילה יהודית קטנה. אולם כיום אין בה קהילה


מקור: אנציקלופדיה עברית, כרך י"ח, עמוד 923


The Jewish community of Venice was created in the 1380s, when the Jews of Treviso were invited to restore the city's finances.  In 1386, the city granted the Jews a stretch of land at San Niccolò (the Lido) to be used as a cemetery.

The oldest tombstone dates from 1389; from the seventeenth century, family crests are used:
here the Levi family commemorate their role in washing the hands of the Cohens, who bless

The expulsion of the Jews from Spain and Venice's defeat by the League of Cambrai created large numbers of refugees, and the Jewish population became useful for its medical, banking and commercial skills. In 1516, the Council debated whether Jews should be allowed to remain in the city. They decided to let the Jews remain, but their residence would be confined to the Ghetto, an islet in the parish of San Geremia. It was a squalid area where metals were gettate, cast or founded, and where the Republic's iron and brass foundries were located. Venice imposed a curfew on the Jewish community, and required residents to wear identifying badges when outside the Ghetto, a yellow circle or scarf. They were only allowed to leave during the day and were locked inside at night. Jews were only permitted to work at pawn shops, act as money lenders, work the Hebrew printing press, trade in textiles or practice medicine. Detailed banking laws kept their interest rates low and made life difficult for many of the poor pawnbrokers and moneylenders.  The Jews were permitted to rent but not to own real estate.

At the spiritual heart of the Ghetto were the synagogues, which were known in Venice as scole, partly because their function in some ways resembled that of the Christian confraternities (scuole) as places of devotion, learning and charity. Originally there were three scole, invisible from the street since the Republic forbade the public expression of non-Christian worship. Because space in the Ghetto was limited, buildings there rose as high as nine storeys.  Over the years the number of scole in the Ghetto increased to nine, of which five survive today..

Jews of Italian and German origin moved into the Ghetto, fleeing persecution. Sephardic Jews from the Levant arrived in the Ghetto Vecchio in 1541. Wealthy Spanish and Portugese Jews also arrived during the sixteenth century, often recovering a sense of Jewishness that had been lost by the Marrano communities of Iberia.  These communities retained separate identities within the Ghetto.

During the seventeenth century, the Jews of Venice extended their control over Venetian maritime trade, participation in which had been abandoned by the city's elite.  Venetian Jewish physicians served in the courts of France and Rome, under special exemptions, and leading rabbis such as Simone Luzzato and Leon da Modena gained international reputations through their writings.  The Ghetto was also home to many Kabbalists such as Rabbi Mosheh Zacuto, who was active from 1645-1673.

Venice Acquires Treviso
For hundreds of years Venice remained an island city-state without any territory on the Italian mainland that adjoined her lagoon. The vast and powerful empire that she had assembled all lay to the east: coastal cities and fortresses throughout the eastern Mediterranean and along the southern coast of the Black Sea and eastern coast of the Adriatic. Though a new empire on the Italian mainland itself was perhaps inevitable, events there began to unfold in a climate of danger and defense rather than imperialistic fervor.

In the early years of the 1300s the Della Scala family, rulers of Verona, a city-state lying about fifty miles west of the Venetian lagoon, had begun an aggressive expansion of their territory. Vicenza, Feltre, Belluno all fell before their forces. Location mapThey captured Padua--just 25 miles from Venice--in September 1328 and in July of the following year seized Treviso, whose territory reached the shores of the Venetian lagoon itself. To the west and south the Veronese captured Brescia, Parma and Lucca. The rising tide of the Della Scala empire threatened the survival of Venice as an independent state.

Nonetheless, Venice was reluctant to undertake a military campaign on the mainland. Finally, seeing no alternative, Venice launched a preemptive attack into Paduan territory in October 1336. Her initial success soon brought Milan, Mantua, Este and Florence into a military alliance with her. By August of 1337 Padua had been captured, and a peace treaty with the Della Scalas was signed in the following January.

The treaty ceded Padua, Treviso and their territories to Venice. Cautious about how much territory she could effectively control, and obligated to reward the Carrara family of Padua for its assistance in the successful military campaign, the Venetians placed Padua and the western portion of the Trevisan territory under Carrara rule, subject to the nominal sovereignty of Venice.

At last Venice was a mainland empire as well as a maritime power. However, more fighting lay ahead to retain the new territory, because the Carraras of Padua were treacherous allies who soon tested Venice's ability and resolve to remain on the mainland.